The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study, and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial have shown that aggressive glucose control, especially early in the natural history of the disease, might result in a significant reduction of microvascular as well as macrovascular complications.
However, more recent trials have increased the level of complexity of the relationship between ‘tight glucose control/chronic complications’, with several factors influencing the risk-to-benefit ratio to be considered, such as age, presence of established complications and diabetes duration. According to this strategy, a more intensive goal is desirable for young patients with no cardiovascular disease, whereas less stringent control is suitable for all people who are relatively late in the natural history of diabetic complications.
Numerous calls for an individualized therapy have been proposed during the past years, but still debated is the level of glucose lowering necessary to reduce complications balanced by the risk and costs of the means used. The present paper briefly reviews the rationale and the clinical trials that support specific glycaemic goals towards a ‘tailored’ approach for the management of hyperglycaemia in diabetes.
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